Living Through Distress (LTD) Programme: Clinical Outcomes

Living Through Distress (LTD) is a Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) informed, group-based intervention. The programme aims to teach emotional regulation, distress tolerance, mindfulness and interpersonal effectiveness skills for individuals with problems of emotional under-control who frequently present with self-harmful behaviours. For those participants with pre and post data, significant improvements were observed in increased mindfulness, improved distress tolerance, and increases in emotion regulation.

The 3 outcome measures for this programme were the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (already described in this summary),  the Distress Tolerance Scale measuring levels of distress and readiness to tolerate distress and the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale to measure the willingness and ability to be mindful,  particularly related to psychological distress.  

Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale Total Scores


Note: Higher scores indicate greater difficulties with emotion regulation



Distress Tolerance Scale Total Scores

Note: Higher scores indicate increased ability to tolerate distress

Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale